Revising React Basics (Fast)

What is React

  • It is a javascript library managed by Facebook. Remember – It is not a framework.
  • React is component-based meaning everything you create is a component.

Eg – A website has <NavBar/> Component , <logo /> component , <Container /> component and <Footer /> component. Create these components individually in react and later use them to create a complete website. Also , the component can be used anywhere else making it reusable.

Quick Prerequisites

  • Basics of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript (with ES6). That’s it!
  • Install node js to your local computer. Click here
  • Any code editor installed on your computer. My recommendation – here

Create your first react project

  • Create a folder
  • Go inside the folder, right-click, and open Powershell.
  • Now write the below command to create react app
 npx create-react-app hello-world
 cd hello-word
 npm start

Great! Your first project is running at http://localhost:3000.

Components in react

  • Any logic/function can be made into a component in react.
  • Component is reusable
  • Main Component – <App/>, rest are child component and is wrapped inside the main component.

2 types of components –

Functional ComponentClass Component
Normal javascript functionrender() method compulsory
function Title()
{
return <h1>I am Title</h1>;
}
class Title extends React. Component
{
render(){
return <h1>I am Title</h1>;
}
}

Class vs Function Component (code difference)

LearnClassComponent.js
---------------------
import React from "react";

class LearnClass extends React.Component {
  render() {
    return (
      <>
        <h2>Hello, I am class component </h2>
      </>
    );
  }
}

export default LearnClass;

LearnFunctionComponent.js
-----------------------
const LearnFunction = () => {
  return (
    <>
      <h3>I am function component</h3>
    </>
  );
};

export default LearnFunction;

Finally, render the above component into <App /> Component

App component can also be written in either class component or function component

App.js (Class comp.)
---------------------

import React from "react";
import LearnClass from "./Component/LearnClassComponent";
import LearnFunction from "./Component/LearnFunctionComponent";

class App extends React.Component {
  render() {
    return (
      <>
        <h1>hello</h1>
        <LearnClass />
        <LearnFunction />
      </>
    );
  }
}
export default App;
App.js (Function comp.)
-----------------------

import LearnClass from "./Component/LearnClassComponent";
import LearnFunction from "./Component/LearnFunctionComponent";

function App() {
  return (
    <>
      <h1>hello</h1>
      <LearnClass />
      <LearnFunction />
    </>
  );
}

export default App;
Note -  Try to use functional component as much as possible

JSX –

  • JSX provides you to write HTML/XML-like structures (e.g., DOM-like tree structures) in the same file where you write JavaScript code, then the preprocessor or transpiler (i.e babel) will transform these expressions into actual JavaScript code
  • JSX is just another form of calling React.createElement()
  • It is nothing but HTML wrapped inside a syntactical sugar
Syntax - 

What you write in react :
<div>Hello WAC</div>

How it is conveted y tranpier so that browerser can read : 
React.createElement("div", null, "Hello WAC");  

Few differences between normal HTML and JSX

HTMLJSX

– class
-for
Some attribute’s name is changed in jsx
-className
-htmlFor
onclick
tabindex
Camel case events property naming convenction
onClick
tabIndex

Props –

  • It’s an optional property that can be passed within the component
  • It helps in making components dynamic
LearnFunctionComponent.jsx -:
----------------------------

const LearnFunction = (props) => {
  console.log(props);
  return (
    <>
      <h3>
        Hello {props.name} a.k.a. {props.heroName}
      </h3>
    </>
  );
};

export default LearnFunction;

App.jsx - :
--------
import React from "react";
import LearnFunction from "./Component/LearnFunctionComponent";

class App extends React.Component {
  render() {
    return (
      <>
        <LearnFunction name="Clark" heroName="Superman" />  
        <LearnFunction name="Dyna" heroName="Wonder Women" />
      </>
    );
  }
}
export default App;

Output

In the above example , inside <App/> component , “name ” and “heroName” are passed as a attribute prop to the <LearnFunction/> component . Inside LearnFunction.jsx file, we are taking those attributes as a prop and using them according to our requirement

Children Props

Sometimes we don’t know what will the content of a prop, in that case, prop. children become handy

LearnFunction.jsx - 
------------------

const LearnFunction = (props) => {
  console.log(props);
  return (
    <>
      <h3>
        Hello {props.name} a.k. a. {props.heroName}
      </h3>
      {props.children}  //can access any data sent as an child prop
    </>
  );
};

export default LearnFunction;

App.jsx-
------------------
import React from "react";
import LearnFunction from "./Component/LearnFunctionComponent";

class App extends React.Component {
  render() {
    return (
      <>
        <LearnFunction name="Clark" heroName="Superman" />  
        <LearnFunction name="Dyna" heroName="Wonder Women" />
        <LearnFunction>
            <button>Release Now</button> //send an an child component , since weapd inside component
        </LearnFunction>
      </>
    );
  }
}
export default App;

Props in Class Component

In the class component, to access props, we need to write “this.props” instead of just “props”

LearnClass.jsx
-----------------

import React from "react";

class LearnClass extends React.Component {
  render() {
    // console.log(this.props);
    return (
      <>
        <h2>Hello, {this.props.name} </h2>
        <p>{this.props.children}</p>
      </>
    );
  }
}

export default LearnClass;

App.js -
-------
import React from "react";
import LearnClass from "./Component/LearnClassComponent";

class App extends React.Component {
  render() {
    return (
      <>
        <LearnClass name="Clark" />
        <p>Upcoming movie in 2023</p>
      </>
    );
  }
}
export default App;
Output

One Drawback of props

suppose in the above example, you want to change the value of props, from “Superman” to “SuperWomen”, you can’t, not because superwomen was not a film, it is just because props are immutable, meaning you cant change or override the value of props.

React Component act as a pure function, when it comes to props

LearnClass.jsx (error)
----------------
import React from "react";

class LearnClass extends React.Component {
  render() {

    //trying to change props value
    this.props.name = "Superwomen";  //not the right way
    return (
      <>
        <h2>Hello, {this.props.name} </h2>
        <p>{this.props.children}</p>
      </>
    );
  }
}
export default LearnClass;

So, to fix this, the state comes into the picture.

State

  • The state is a built-in React object that is used to contain data or information about the component
  • State value is mutable and can change over time depending upon the user’s action
  • State is maintained inside the component
  • State influence what is rendered in the browser

State using Class Component

LearnClass.js
--------------

import React from "react";

class LearnClass extends React.Component {
  constructor() {
//it is required to call parent class construcotr
    super();
//state defined inside constuctor, this is recommended
    this.state = { name: "Kent" };
  }

  changeText = () => {
    this.setState({
      name: "clark",
    });
  };
  render() {
    return (
      <>
        <h2>Hello, {this.state.name} </h2>
        <button id="btn" onClick={() => this.changeText()}>
          subscribe
        </button>
      </>
    );
  }
}
export default LearnClass;

In the above code, you should always right the state inside the constructor because whenever the component class is created(LearnClass in this case), the constructor is the first method to be invoked, meaning all the values are initialized first.

Initializing State inside the class, not inside the constructor (not recommended)
import React from "react";

class LearnClass extends React.Component {
  //state defined within class
  state = { name: "Rahul", roll: 102 };

  render() {
    return (
      <>
        <h3> {this.state.name} , Naam to suna hoga </h3>
        <p>Aur roll number bhi {this.state.roll}</p>
      </>
    );
  }
}
export default LearnClass;

When the state is defined within a class, no need to use “this.state” to define, directly use “state”.

State using Functional Component

Earlier it was told that State can only be used in the Class component. To overcome this issue, react came with hooks, which allow us to use state property in functional components as well.

//LearnFunction.jsx

import { useState } from "react";

const LearnFunction = () => {
  let [count, setCounter] = useState(0);

  let increaseCounter = () => {
    setCounter(count + 1);
  };

  return (
    <>
      <h3>Hello {count}</h3>
      <button onClick={() => setCounter(increaseCounter)}>Increase (+) </button>
    </>
  );
};

export default LearnFunction;


App.js
-------

import React from "react";
import LearnFunction from "./Component/LearnFunctionComponent";

function App() {
  return (
    <>
      <LearnFunction />
    </>
  );
}

export default App;
 

For the sake of article length and keeping in mind, that this article is only to make you basic ready in React, I will now conclude this article.

Conclusion

Almost any further concept you learn after this in react, some of the above concepts will definitely come into picture.

So that you are comfortable with above topics, you are free and ready to learn some more important topic in ract

I am listing important concepts which you need to learn in React.

  • Hooks
  • React Router
  • Context API
  • Axios
  • Redux

Hope this article helped. Thank you for reading.

Help Others

Himanshu Shekhar

Hey. I am a software engineer with 3+ years. Along with my job, I create content regarding coding and software engineering in general. I would request you to follow my blog and my video, which will help you in your software engineering journey. Follow me on Youtube →
View All Articles

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.